Regions that are ecologically more vulnerable by the anthropogenic load have been revealed with the help of mathematical modeling and analysis of data on the global climate. These regions are characterized by high sensitivity of the atmospheric air quality to variations in the pollution sources. The results presented here were obtained with the use of a technique proposed for solution of interconnected ecological and climate problems. The technique is based on variational principles and combination of direct and inverse modeling procedures, as well as the methods of sensitivity theory. The regional and hemispheric models of pollutant transport and transformation are used. The scenarios of atmospheric circulation are constructed with the help of hydrodynamic models of the informative type, in which the data from Reanalysis NCEP/NCAR are assimilated.