The results of studying the elemental and ion composition of the ambient aerosol in and around Antwerp are presented. Four sampling campaigns covering all seasons were performed. The samples were obtained by filtration and impaction methods. Subsequently, the filters were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elements, and the impactor substrates were leached with water and analyzed by ion chromatography for ions. In comparing the results of chemical analysis with the meteorological information, it was found that the concentration of certain elements and ions in aerosol samples was affected considerably by the location of the sampling site and by the meteorological conditions. In relatively less polluted places like small towns and suburbs of Antwerp, the concentrations of some elements and ions showed qualitatively a positive or negative correlation with the amount of precipitation in their time variations. Hence, we suppose that in the former case these elements and ions are contained mainly in the more hygroscopic fraction (the most apparent is the behavior of Na and Cl) and in the latter case the elements are mainly present in the less hygroscopic fraction of the ambient aerosol. However, this behavior of the elements and ions may differ for particles in different size ranges. In the highly urbanized and industrial sites close to the central and industrial parts of Antwerp, these correlations were not found. This could be connected with the high and variable local aerosol generation rate, when only heavy rains are able to provide a sufficient removal of aerosols from the atmosphere.