The results of combined investigation into fluctuations of electric and aerosol characteristics of the atmosphere as a precursor of tectonic activity of the Earth's crust are presented. Experimental measurements were conducted near the Bugaz Fault at the Taman Peninsula. It is shown that the absolute values of the electric field strength E and the aerosol scattering coefficient σ s begin to increase several hours before an earthquake and decrease to the background values immediately after an earthquake shock. The shape and maxima of the amplitude spectra of E and σ s depend on the time interval between the measurement and the tectonic disturbance. The data obtained show that aerosol significantly affects the electric characteristics of the atmosphere. Optical and meteorological conditions, under which aerosol inversions of the seismic origin can be found with the aid of an orbital lidar, were determined in the numerical Monte Carlo experiment.