Vol. 27, issue 09, article # 9

Rokotyan N. V., Imasu R., Zakharov V. I., Gribanov K. G., Khamatnurova M. Yu. The amplitude of the CO2 seasonal cycle in the atmosphere of Ural by ground-based and satellite remote sensing techniques. // Optika Atmosfery i Okeana. 2014. V. 27. No. 09. P. 819-825 [in Russian].
Copy the reference to clipboard

The series of ground-based high resolution Fourier-transform measurements of atmospheric transmittance in near infrared region (4000–10000 cm–1) recorded at the Ural Atmospheric Station in 2012–2013 was processed in order to retrieve relative concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in atmospheric column. Retrieved values of methane concentration do not show a noticable seasonal cycle, while retrieved CO2 concentrations show clear seasonal variations with high amplitude, which are also observed in GOSAT measurements over Ural region. The estimated amplitude of CO2 seasonal variations is 14–15 ppm. Intercomparison between ground-based and GOSAT measurements of CO2 shows a good agreement, while satellite values are overestimated by approximately 3 ppm. There is no noticable correlation between CH4 values, which one can explain by presence of local methane sources in the area of GOSAT observations.


atmospheric remote sensing, FTIR spectrometry, carbon gases, greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, GOSAT, validation, Ural Atmospheric Station


1. Jouzel J. A brief history of ice core science over the last 50 years // Clim. Past. 2013. V. 9, N 6. P. 2525–2547.
2. MacFarling Meure C., Etheridge D., Trudinger C., Steele P., Langenfelds R., van Ommen T., Smith A., Elkins J. Law Dome CO2, CH4, and N2O ice core records extended to 2000 years BP // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006. V. 33. L14810. 4 p.
3. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., Miller H.L. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis // Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, 2007. 996 p.
4. Francey R.J., Trudinger C.M., van der Schoot M., Law R.M., Krummel P.B., Langenfelds R.L., Steele L.P., Allison C.E., Stavert A.R., Andres R.J., Rödenbeck C. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends // Nat. Clim. Change. 2012. V. 3, N 5. P. 520–524.
5. Olivier J.G.J., Janssens-Maenhout G., Peters J.A.H.W. Trends in global CO2 emissions, 2012 Report. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. The Hague, Joint Research Centre. 2012. 39 p.
6. Schneising O., Buchwitz M., Reuter M., Heymann J., Bovensmann H., Burrows J.P. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2011. V. 11, N 6. P. 2863–2880.
7. Schneising O., Heymann J., Buchwitz M., Reuter M., Bovensmann H., Burrows J.P. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide source areas observed from space: Assessment of regional enhancements and trends // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013. V. 13, N 5. P. 2445–2454.
8. Schneising O., Reuter M., Buchwitz M., Heymann J., Bovensmann H., Burrows J.P. Terrestrial carbon sink observed from space: Variation of growth rates and seasonal cycle amplitudes in response to interannual surface temperature variability // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2014. V. 14, N 1. P. 133–141.
9. Dlugokencky E.J., Bruhwiler L., White J.W.C., Emmons L.K., Novelli P.C., Montzka S.A., Masarie K.A., Lang P.M., Crotwell A.M., Miller J.B., Gatti L.V. Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2009. V. 36, N 18. L18803. 5 p.
10. Rigby M., Prinn R.G., Fraser P.J., Simmonds P.G., Langenfelds R.L., Huang J., Cunnold D.M., Steele L.P., Krummel P.B., Weiss R.F., O’Doherty S., Salameh P.K., Wang H.J., Harth C.M., Mühle J., Porter L.W. Renewed growth of atmospheric methane // Geophys. Res. Lett. 2008. V. 35, N 22. L22805. 6 p.
11. URL: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
12. Kirschke S., Bousquet P., Ciais P., Saunois M., Canadell J.G., Dlugokencky E.J., Bergamaschi P., Bergmann D., Blake D.R., Bruhwiler L., Cameron-Smith P., Castaldi S., Chevallier F., Feng L., Fraser A., Heimann M., Hodson E.L., Houweling S., Josse B., Fraser P.J., Krummel P.B., Lamarque J.-F., Langenfelds R.L., Le Quéré C., Naik V., O’Doherty S., Palmer P.I., Pison I., Plummer D., Poulter B., Prinn R.G., Rigby M., Ringeval B., Santini M., Schmidt M., Shindell D.T., Simpson I.J., Spahni R., Steele L.P., Strode S.A., Kengo Sudo K., Szopa S., van der Werf G.R., Voulgarakis A., van Weele M., Weiss R.F., Williams J.E., Zeng G. Three decades of global methane sources and sink // Nat. Geosci. 2013. V. 6, N 10. P. 813–823.
13. Bergamaschi P., Houweling H., Segers A., Krol M., Frankenberg C., Scheepmaker R.A., Dlugokencky E., Wofsy S.C., Kort E.A., Sweeney C., Schuck T., Brenninkmeijer C., Chen H., Beck V., Gerbig C. Atmospheric CH4 in the first decade of the 21st century: Inverse modeling analysis using SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and NOAA surface measurements // J. Geophys. Res. 2013. V. 118, N 13. P. 7350–7369.
14. Ciais P., Dolman A.J., Bombelli A., Duren R., Peregon A., Rayner P.J., Miller C., Gobron N., Kinderman G., Marland G., Gruber N., Chevallier F., Andres R.J., Balsamo G., Bopp L., Bréon F.-M., Broquet G., Dargaville R., Battin T.J., Borges A., Bovensmann H., Buchwitz M., Butler J., Canadell J.G., Cook R.B., DeFries R., Engelen R., Gurney K.R., Heinze C., Heimann M., Held A., Henry M., Law B., Luyssaert S., Miller J., Moriyama T., Moulin C., Myneni R.B., Nussli C., Obersteiner M., Ojima D., Pan Y., Paris J.-D., Piao S.L., Poulter B., Plummer S., Quegan S., Raymond P., Reichstein M., Rivier L., Sabine C., Schimel D., Tarasova O., Valentini R., van der Werf G., Wickland D., Williams M., Zehner C. Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system // Biogeosciences Discuss. 2013. V. 10, N 7. P. 11447–11581.
15. Houweling S., Krol M., Bergamaschi P., Frankenberg C., Dlugokencky E.J., Morino I., Notholt J., Sherlock V., Wunch D., Beck V., Gerbig C., Chen H., Kort E.A., Röckmann T., Aben I. A multi-year methane inversion using SCIAMACHY, accounting for systematic errors using TCCON measurements // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2014. V. 14, N 8. P. 3991–4012.
16. Canadell J.G., Ciais P., Dhakal S., Dolman H., Friedlingstein P., Gurney K.R., Held A., Jackson R.B., Le Quéré C., Malone E.L., Ojima D.S., Patwardhan A., Peters G.P., Raupach M.R. Interactions of the carbon cycle, human activity, and the climate system: a research portfolio // Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainabil. 2010. V. 2, N 4. P. 301–311.
17. Stephens B.B., Gurney K.R., Tans P.P., Sweeney C., Peters W., Bruhwiler L., Ciais P., Ramonet M., Bousquet P., Nakazawa T., Aoki S., Machida T., Inoue G., Vinnichenko N., Lloyd J., Jordan A., Heimann M., Shibistova O., Langenfelds R.L., Steele L.P., Francey R.J., Denning A.S. Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2 // Science. 2007. V. 316, N 5832. P. 1732–1735.
18. Kuze A., Suto H., Nakajima M., Hamazaki T. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring // Appl. Opt. 2009. V. 48, N 35. P. 6716–6733.
19. Yoshida Y., Ota Y., Eguchi N., Kikuchi N., Nobuta K., Tran H., Morino I., Yokota T. Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the greenhouse gases observing satellite // Atmos. Measur. Technol. 2011. V. 4, N 4. P. 717–734.
20. Inoue M., Morino I., Uchino O., Miyamoto Y., Yoshida Y., Yokota T., Machida T., Sawa Y., Matsueda H., Sweeney C., Tans P.P., Andrews A.E., Biraud S.C., Tanaka T., Kawakami S., Patra P.K. Validation of XCO2 derived from SWIR spectra of GOSAT TANSO-FTS with aircraft measurement data // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013. V. 13, N 19. P. 9771–9788.
21. Tanaka T., Miyamoto Y., Morino I., Machida T., Nagahama T., Sawa Y., Matsueda H., Wunch D., Kawakami S., Uchino O. Aircraft measurements of carbon dioxide and methane for the calibration of ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers and a comparison to GOSAT data measured over Tsukuba and Moshiri // Atmos. Measur. Technol. 2012. V. 8, N 5. P. 2005–2012.
22. Arshinov M.Ju., Belan B.D., Davydov D.K., Inoue G., Krasnov O.A., Machida T., Maksutov Sh.Sh., Nedjeljek F., Ramonet M., Sias F., Tolmachev G.N., Fofonov A.V. Organizacija monitoringa parnikovyh i okisljajushhih atmosferu komponent nad territoriej Sibiri i nekotorye ego rezul'taty. 1. Gazovyj sostav // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2006. V. 19, N 11. P. 948–955.
23. Arshinov M.Ju., Belan B.D., Davydov D.K., Inoue G., Maksutov Sh.Sh., Machida T., Fofonov A.V. Vertikal'noe raspredelenie parnikovyh gazov nad Zapadnoj Sibir'ju po dannym mnogoletnih izmerenij // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2009. V. 22, N 5. P. 457–464.
24. Arshinov M.Ju., Afonin S.V., Belan B.D., Belov V.V., Gridnev Ju.V., Davydov D.K., Machida T., Nédélec Ph., Paris J.-D., Fofonov A.V. Sravnenie sputnikovyh i samoletnyh izmerenij gazovogo sostava v troposfere nad Jugom Zapadnoj Sibiri // Optika atmosf. i okeana. 2013. V. 26, N 9. P. 773–782.
25. Klonecki A., Pommier M., Clerbaux C., Ancellet G., Cammas J.-P., Coheur P.-F., Cozic A., Diskin G.S., Hadji-Lazaro J., Hauglustaine D.A., Hurtmans D., Khattatov B., Lamarque J.-F., Law K.S., Nedelec P., Paris J.-D., Podolske J.R., Prunet P., Schlager H., Szopa S., Turquety S. Assimilation of IASI satellite CO fields into a global chemistry transport model for validation against aircraft measurements // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2012. V. 12, N 10. P. 4493–4512.
26. Uspenskij A.B., Kuharskij A.V., Romanov S.V., Rublev A.N. Monitoring koncentracii dioksida ugleroda i obshhego soderzhanija metana v troposfere nad Sibir'ju po dannym sputnikovyh IK-zondirovshhikov AIRS, IASI // Issled. Zemli iz kosmosa. 2011. N 1. P. 14–21.
27. Kuharskij A.V., Uspenskij A.B. Opredelenie srednej koncentracii dioksida ugleroda v troposfere po dannym sputnikovogo IK-zondirovshhika vysokogo spektral'nogo razreshenija // Meteorol. i gidrol. 2009. N 4. P. 15–28.
28. Kuharskij A.V., Uspenskij A.B. Monitoring soderzhanija dioksida ugleroda v troposfere nad boreal'nymi jekosistemami Sibiri // Sovremennye problemy distancionnogo zondirovanija Zemli iz kosmosa. 2010. V. 7, N 4. P. 204–211.
29. Wunch D., Toon G.C., Wennberg P.O., Wofsy S.C., Stephens B.B., Fischer M.L., Uchino O., Abshire J.B., Bernath P., Biraud S.C., Blavier J.-F.L., Boone C., Bowman K.P., Browell E.V., Campos T., Connor B.J., Daube B.C., Deutscher N.M., Diao M., Elkins J.W., Gerbig C., Gottlieb E., Griffith D.W.T., Hurst D.F., Jimenez R., Keppel-Aleks G., Kort E.A., Macatangay R., Machida T., Matsueda H., Moore F., Morino I., Park S., Robinson J., Roehl C.M., Sawa Y., Sherlock V., Sweeney C., Tanaka T., Zondlo M.A. Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using aircraft profile data // Atmos. Measur. Technol. 2010. V. 3, N 5. P. 1351–1362.
30. Hannigan J.W., Coffey M.T., Goldman A. Semi-Autonomous FTS Observation System for Remote Sensing of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Gases // J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 2009. V. 26. P. 1814–1828.
31. Morino I., Uchino O., Inoue M., Yoshida Y., Yokota T., Wennberg P.O., Toon G.C., Wunch D., Roehl C.M., Notholt J., Warneke T., Messerschmidt J., Griffith D.W.T., Deutscher N.M., Sherlock V., Connor B., Robinson J., Sussmann R., Rettinger M. Preliminary validation of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra // Atmos. Measur. Technol. 2011. V. 4, N 6. P. 1061–1076.
32. Notholt J., Blumenstock T., Brunner D., Buchmann B., Dils B., De Mazière M., Popp Ch., Sussmann R. Product validation and algorithm selection report (PVASR), ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI). Final report. 22 August 2012 // URL: http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/? q=node/95
33. Cogan A.J., Boesch H., Parker R.J., Feng L., Palmer P.I., Blavier J.-F.L., Deutscher N.M., Macatangay R., Notholt J., Roehl C., Warneke T., Wunch D. Atmospheric carbon dioxide retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT): Comparison with ground-based TCCON observations and GEOS-Chem model calculations // J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 2012. V. 117. D21301. 17 p.
34. Gribanov K., Jouzel J., Bastrikov V., Bonne J.-L., Breon F.-M., Butzin M., Cattani O., Masson-Delmotte V., Rokotyan N., Werner M., Zakharov V. Developing a Western Siberia reference site for tropospheric water vapour isotopologue observations obtained by different techniques (in situ and remote sensing) // Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2014. V. 14, N 12. P. 5943–5957.
35. Keppel-Aleks G., Toon G.C., Wennberg P.O., Deutscher N.M. Reducing the impact of source brightness fluctuations on spectra obtained by Fourier-transform spectrometry // Appl. Opt. 2007. V. 46, N 21. P. 4774–4779.
36. Rodgers C.D. Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice. Singapur: World Scientific Publishing, 2000. 238 p.
37. Wunch D., Toon G.C., Blavier J.-F.L., Washenfelder R.A., Notholt J., Connor B.J., Griffith D.W.T., Sherlock V., Wennberg P.O. The total carbon column observing network // Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society – Series A // Phys. and Eng. Sci. 2011. V. 369, N 1943. P. 2087–2112.
38. Rothman L.S., Gordon I.E., Barbe A., Benner D.C., Bernath P.F., Birk M., Boudon V., Brown L.R., Campargue A., Champion J.P. The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database // J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 2009. V. 110, N 9–10. P. 533–572.
39. Kalnay E., Kanamitsu M., Kistler R., Collins W., Deaven D., Gandin L., Iredell M., Saha S., White G., Woollen J., Zhu Y., Leetmaa A., Reynolds R. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project // Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 1996. V. 77, N 3. P. 437–471.