The data of high–mountain observations of variabilities of the optical spectral thickness in the wavelength range 320–430 nm and of the total ozone and water vapor contents, obtained during the maxima and minima of current and preceding cycles of solar activity, are analyzed. The optical properties of both the atmospheric and stratospheric air masses are concluded to be continuously controlled by microwave and corpuscular solar radiation. The corpuscular radiation affects the troposphere at mid–latitudes after bright solar flares solely. Microwave solar radiation in the centimeter and millimeter wavelengths directly affects the microphysical state of the molecules of water vapor thereby altering the radiative and thermal regimes of these atmospheric layers. The possibility of formulation of the basic weather and climate mechanisms for how the sun affects the troposphere is offered.