Results of the analysis of peculiarities and regularities of long-term changes of the troposphere temperature conditions in northern and southern hemispheres within individual longitudinal zones and at different isobaric surfaces for 1948-2006 are presented. The amplitude of the air surface temperature (AST) variations is maximal in high-latitude regions in the hemispheres, and decreases toward the equator. The warming in the second half of the 20th century began earlier in high latitudes in the early 1960s and in the lower latitudes - in the middle of 70s. The AST positive anomaly is maximal in Polar regions of both hemispheres and apparently has not reached its maximum yet. As for the high-latitude regions, the warming is caused by increasing AST in the cold period. In the warm period at latitudes above 40 in both northern and southern hemispheres, the AST increase can hardly be observed. Moreover, the temperature fall is observed in the warm period in southern hemisphere in the polar region. It has been found that for the last 50 years the lower and middle troposphere (850-400 hPa) temperature has increased in the middle and high latitudes of northern hemisphere, while in the upper troposphere (over 400 hPa) and in the lower stratosphere it has decreased. The results of analysis of space-time variations of the open atmosphere heat content for 1948-2006 are given. The obtained results are discussed.