The vertical and horizontal distribution of atmospheric aerosol over some cities of Russia and Kazakhstan is analyzed based on the data of airborne sounding. It is shown that the aerosol cap over industrial center is 400 to 600 m thick and is completely determined by the height of the internal mixing layer. Its horizontal length seems to be tens of kilometers. The aerosol mass concentration in the cap is 2 to 8 times greater than that in the near-ground layer. The enrichment in same components inside the cap can reach 350 times. Chemical composition of aerosol essentially differs from the near-ground one. Then, it is an individual element for each city, which is characteristic of it. In addition to the peculiarities of chemical composition of emissions, such an element can be a certificate of the industrial center, when studying the transboundary transport of air pollution.